Australia could produce all its electricity from solar power, and from what I understand, at not much extra or cost, certainly in the medium term. We have the centre of our country almost empty and the sun shines a lot. It is a perfect place for solar panels. Vested interests in coal from power and gas miners prevent this happening and I suspect now there are even vested interests in wind farms that would not be happy about mass solar power. If we must, we can have wind, wave, methane from decomposing rubbish to supplement the solar. Now don't tell me that a combination of all won't supply base load power always.
Water; we can desalinate water using solar power for little cost. Once again, kiddies will be able to run under garden sprinklers on a hot day and our grass will be green. The only negatives I see with desalination is that it is power hungry, addressed by solar power, and brine outlets not dispersing the brine widely enough which could be easily fixed for some extra dollars. Full environmental flows for rivers is quite possible.
Gas for heating and cooking; the supply will see out your grandchildren and there seems to be no harm in taking gas from our gas fields.
Recycling; There is nothing that can't be recycled. Our governments need to organise it much better and we throw out so much that could be reused, if not by ourselves, by others. Third world countries do recycling better, sadly because of poverty, and it is not done safely.
Freight; it is absurd that we move freight by trucks on roads between our major cities when we have rail lines between them.
Transport of the public; I drive my car to work as mega messy things happen if I am not at work on time. I could get a tram direct to work, but I don't as the service is not reliable enough. I could catch earlier trams to be sure, both ways, twice a day, adding an hour plus to my working day. No, and I live in a very good public transport oriented area, which we use all the time, but not when we have to be somewhere at a certain time. Our public transport needs to be more efficient and reliable.
Airport rail line; there aren't too many first world cities the size of Melbourne that don't have a rail line to their major international airport. While we don't want to waste money, and so it should be efficiently managed, who cares if it makes a loss. It is a service to the public.
Medical care; We need to pay more tax to pay for it. I would quite happily pay the equivalent of my private health insurance in extra tax, as long as I knew the money was not being wasted, just so that our medical system works for all. Think how much money is spent on private health insurance in Australia and how much money there would be be for medical care if that money was directed to public health. Mind though. I have quite a strong feeling that way too much money is being spent in health bureaucracy, in fact many bureaucracies.
How to pay for all of the above? The government borrows the money at a low rate of interest, which it can because it is the government, and invests money in our future and the future of subsequent generations.